Measures of provider success are the centerpiece of quality improvement and pay-for-performance programs around the globe. In most nations, these measures are derived from administrative records, paper charts and consumer surveys; increasingly, electronic patient record systems are also being used. We use the term ‘e-QMs’ to describe quality measures that are based on data found within electronic health records and other related health information technology (HIT). We offer a framework or typology for e-QMs and describe opportunities and impediments associated with the transition from old to new data sources. If public and private systems of care are to effectively use HIT to support and evaluate health-care system quality and safety, the quality measurement field must embrace new paradigms and strategically address a series of technical, conceptual and practical challenges.